The host is infected by the larvae, not by the eggs and the usual route is through the skin. Hookworm larvae need warm, moist soil, above 18°C in order to hatch. They will die if exposed to direct sunlight or if they become dried out. Necator larvae can survive at higher temperatures than Ancylostoma larvae.
The nutritional status of adults and the elderly was determined using the absolute BMI and classified as eutrophic (18.5–24.9 kg/m 2), underweight (measurements and estimating arm fat (F) and arm muscle (M) areas, according to age (Frisancho 1981).Cited by: 109.
Because of the high rates of hookworm infection among adults, occupation also has an important influence on hookworm epidemiology. In particular, engagement in agricultural pursuits remains a common denominator for human hookworm infection. In the absence of direct measurements, Cited by: 361.
Author summary Intestinal parasites, diseases of poverty that infect low-income populations and decrease school attendance and earning potential, infect more than 1 billion people worldwide. Current international guidelines focus deworming campaigns on high-risk populations of preschool- and school-aged children, and women of childbearing age.Cited by: 10.